Transposons are the mobile genetic sequences that can jump from one location to another location into the genome.

We had covered some of the interesting articles on the transposable element. Also, we had discussed DNA transposons,  retrotransposons, bacterial transposons and other eukaryotic transposons in our previous articles.

The present article contains some of the external resources (books) along with a summary of the topic.

This section is about books.

We will give you a brief introduction about some of the informative books which are very much required if you want to learn more about the mobile genetic elements.

Let’s get started,

The transposable element or transposon, often abbreviated as TE can jump from one location to another location within the genome, therefore, they are also called jumping genes.

However, the jumping might be dangerous to the genome of an organism. Hence they are also known as selfish genes or parasitic genes.

In the early 50s, B. McClintock first discovered the transposable elements from the Maize.

The transposons are divided into two classes, class I retrotransposons and class II DNA transposons.

The present book is like beginners guide about transposable elements. It contains information on the history of TE, retrotransposons and bacteria transposons.

The author also has written a dedicated chapter on “ telomere and transposable elements”.

See inside the book here.

Transposable Elements

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Editor: Galun, Esra

Year: 2003

or

Read our introductory article on it: Transposons: A Jumping Entity and a Foe with Benefits

Transposition of DNA transposon occurred via the DNA intermediate whereas retroviral transposition occurred via the RNA intermediates.

The DNA transposons are present in bacterial and other prokaryotes while the retrotransposons are present in eukaryotes.

The bacterial transposons are insertion sequence or composite transposons. The composite transposons are made up of two insertional sequence elements.

Read more on DNA transposon, bacterial transposon and insertional elements: Transposase, Transposons and Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria

P elements in Drosophila, Ac/Ds and Spm/Dspm in maize and TY elements in maize are some of the commonly present transposons in the eukaryotes.

Further, human transposons are LINEs, SINEs or retrotransposon.

The book listed below contains all the information on bacterial and eukaryotic transposons.

Further, the author also covered an interesting topic on “ in vivo and in vitro mechanism of Tn10 and IS10 transposons and chromosomal rearrangement.”

Transposable Elements

Editor: Saedler, Heinz; Gierl, Alfons

Year: 1996

Or

You can also read our article on eukaryotic transposon: Transposons in eukaryotes

Retrotransposons are only present in the eukaryotic genome. The mode of transposition may be either replicative or non-replicative.

The retrotransposons migrate via the RNA intermediates.

It has a gag and pol gene, same as retroviruses. It is believed that the retrotransposons are evolved from the retrovirus.

The DNA is transcribed into mRNA which is later reverse transcribed into the DNA and then integrated into the host genome.

Structurally, the retrotransposons contain terminal repeats on both the ends of it.

The detailed information of retrotransposon is present in the book listed below. The key topics of the book are the history of retrotransposons, types of it and its role.

The present book also contains information on “ in silico methods for identification of transposable elements”.

Transposons and Retrotransposons

Editor: Garcia-Pérez, Jose L.

Year: 2016

Further, the explanation of retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq) to resolve somatic L1 retrotransposons in humans is given in the external resource enlisted above. 

Retrotransposon-mediated transposition causes lethal mutations in the human genome. It can cause several diseases that might be inherited.

The retrotransposon mediated transposition mobilize into germ cells as well as somatic cells.

The book enlisted below covers topics on the mobilization of retrotransposons into the somatic cell as well as germ cells and their contribution to genome plasticity.

Human Retrotransposons in Health and Disease

Editor:  Cristofari, Gael

Year: 2017

Another important function transposon played in the human genome is to give structural support to the genome. Further, the presence of transposon controls gene expression.

The book given below, centred on how the transposons involved in the evolution of the genome. The source is listed below,

Transposons and the Dynamic Genome

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Editor: Lankenau, Dirk; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

Year: 2009

The transposon encodes for a transposase protein that can help them to move from one place to another. The transposase enzyme binds to the terminal repeats of a transposon, cut it and paste it to another location.

The transposase protein has both excision and insertional activity.

transposase cleave double-stranded DNA at the Excision site and single-stranded DNA at the insertion site. It cuts the target DNA at two different locations on two different single strands.

Since long, the retrotransposons are inactive in the eukaryotic genome and settled into the non-coding region of it.

The human genome is made up of coding and non-coding DNA. The non-coding DNA sequences are situated at the centromeric and telomeric regions of a chromosome.

The transposable elements are majorly settled on the telomeric region of the DNA.

Further, it provides structural support to the genome.

The book given below is all about the transposons and their role in genome evolution. It contains information on transposable elements in different organisms and their role in genome evolution. 

The content of the book is given below,

Transposable Elements and Genome Evolution

Editor: McDonald, J. F.

Year: 2000

Further,

Transposons played an important role in the process of evolution as well as speciation.

Different alleles are originated due to the transposition of some of the DNA sequences from one location to another.

The transposons contain some of the DNA sequences from the previous host DNA and mobilize it to another location.

By doing this, a combination of different DNA sequences within the coding regions creates new variations.

However, the present postulations are controversial and not accepted globally.

The books listed below are focused on the transposons and their role in evolution. Read it here,

Evolution and Impact of Transposable Elements Transposable Elements and Evolution

Editor: Capy, Pierre

Year: 1997

Editor: McDonald, J. F.

Year: 1993

Or

You can also read our previous article on transposon and evolution: Role of transposons in evolution

The plant genome is tremendously elastic due to the presence of the transposable elements and that elasticity provides power to plant against some of the adverse conditions.  

~80% of the Maize genome is made up of mobile genetic elements.

Different types of variations can be created into the plant genome against some of the environmental stresses.

The transposons are very important in plant research. The present books contain all the information regarding the role of the transposable elements into the plant research.

Plant Transposable Elements
Editor: Grandbastien, Marie-Angèle; Casacuberta, Josep

Year: 2012

Another book is about the method and protocols which you can use in the plant transposon research. This book contains all the practical SOPs for your experiments.

Plant Transposable Elements

Editor: Peterson, Thomas

Year: 2013

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Read further:

  1. What is the target site duplication?
  2. Site-Directed Mutagenesis: Methods and Applications

Conclusion:

Transposable elements played a significant role in the evolution of the genome. Extensive research is required to explore more on transposons. The transposon might be one of the best vectors for gene transfer technology in future.