“The genes are the functional unit of our genome that are located on chromosomes- a complex network of DNA and protein.” 


A chromosome is the most condensed form of DNA that enables DNA to fit inside a cell. It is a network of histone proteins and DNA that makes nucleosome assembly, bead-on-string, chromatin, chromatids and chromosome. 

The entire process of making a chromosome is complex, we aren’t discussing it here. If you wish to learn, you can read these two articles related to it. 

Genes are a working nucleic acid sequence that has the power to build a protein. A few portions of our genome (genome is the whole set of DNA of a cell) can make proteins, approximately 3%, the rest are non-functional DNA or we can say not genes. 

Functionally, through replication, transcription and translation the gene copies, form mRNA and protein respectively. 

Genes are found on chromosomes we know it! But exactly where? On which region of chromosomes they are present? 

In the present article, I will tell you where genes are located on chromosomes and the location of different genes on different chromosomes. 

Where are genes located? 

To understand the present topic we have to understand some basic things regarding the chromosome. The chromosomes have two arms the long q arm and the short p arms. 

Also, it has the telomere on ends and the centromere in the middle. 

The loosely arranged regions on chromosomes are known as euchromatin regions while the tightly packed regions are known as the heterochromatin region. 

“The genes are located on the loosely packed euchromatin region of the chromosomes arms”, Not on telomere, not on centromere or not even in the heterochromatin region of it. 

The telomeres are end portion of chromosomes and are non-replicating and non-coding repetitive DNA. It protects genes actually. 

The centromere is also a non-coding DNA rich region. The heterochromatin region is so tightly packed that it doesn’t allow transcriptional factors and enzymes to make protein. 

So the only portion of chromosomes that is the euchromatin and loosely packed, open access regions that allow enzymes to bind and make protein by transcription. And are genes!

Different genes are located on different chromosomes. Here we have listed the location of several genes on different chromosomes. 

The location of genes on a chromosome.

The location of genes on a chromosome.

Location of genes on chromosome 1:

Sr no  Gene  Location 
1 BCL2L15 1p13.2
2 CYP4B1 1p46.76-46.82
3 DBT 1p100.19-100.25
4 JAK1 1p64.83-65.07
5 MTHFR 1p11.79-11.81
6 NGF 1p115.29-115.34
7 RSPO1 1p37.61-37.63
8 ZNF436 1p23.36-23.37
9 TAL1 1p47.22-47.23
10 LCK 1p32.25-32.29

Location of genes on chromosome 2: 

Sr no  Gene  Location 
1 GEN1 2p24.2
2 ZNF142 2q35
3 TTN 2q31.2
4 NCL 2q37.1
5 AGXT 2q37.3

Location of genes on chromosome 3: 

Sr no  Gene  location
1 ZNF9 3q21.3
2 SOX2 3q26.33
3 PHO 3q22.1
4 FOXP1 3p13
5 RPP14 3p14.3

Location of genes on chromosome 4: 

Sr no  Gene  Location 
1 ZNF621 3p22.1
2 HTT 4p16.3
3 IGJ 4q13.3
4 Factor XI 4q35.2
5 Complement factor I  4q25

Location of genes on chromosome 5: 

Sr no  Gene  Location 
1 IK 5q31.3
2 TBCA 5q14.1
3 SMN1 5q13.2
4 PURA 5q31.3
5 ARL15 5q11.2

Location of genes on chromosome 6:

Sr no  Gene  Location 
1 HLA-A 6p21.30
2 HLA-B 6p21.33
3 HLA-C 6p21.33
4 ZNF76 6p21.31
5 TAAR1 6q23.2

Location of genes on chromosome 7: 

Sr no  Gene Location 
1 PURB 7p13
2 POP7 7q22.1
3 SCIN 7p21.3
4 BRAT1 7p22.3
5 URG4 7p13

Location of genes on chromosome 8: 

Sr no  Gene  Location 
1 ZNF16 8q24.3
2 TG 8q24.22
3 HMBOX1 8q21.1-p12
4 FGFR1 8p11.23
5 GDF6 8q22.1

Location of genes on chromosome 9: 

Sr no  Gene  Location 
1 ZNF510 9q22.33
2 INSL6 9p24.1
3 GALT 9p13.3
4 FXN 9q21.11
5 ABO 9p34.2

Location of genes on chromosome 10: 

Sr no  Gene  Location 
1 GATA3 10p14
2 PTEN 10q23.31
3 RET 10q11.21
4 ZNF438 10p11.23
5 STOX1 10q22.1

Location of genes on chromosome 11:

Sr no  Gene  Location 
1 HBB 11p15.4
2 Insulin 11p15.5
3 NAP1L4 11p15.4
4 WT1 11p13
5 UPK2 11q23.3

Location of genes on chromosome 12:

Sr no  Gene  Location 
1 TWF1 12q12
2 PAH 12q23.2
3 MYO1A 12q13.3
4 KRAS 12p12.1
5 KERA 12q21.33

Location of genes on chromosome 13:

Sr no  Gene  Location 
1 BRCA2 13q13.1
2 BRCA3 13q13.1
3 DZIP1 13q32.1
4 RB1 13q14.2
5 POMP 13q12.3

Location of genes on chromosome 14: 

Sr no  Gene  Location
1 ATXN3 14q32.12
2 GALC 14q31.3
3 WARS 14q32.2
4 PSEN1 14q24.2
5 ACIN1 14q11.2

Location of genes on chromosome 15: 

Sr no  Gene  Location
1 CHP1 15q15.1
2 CAPN3 15q15.1
3 FBN1 15q21.1
4 HEXA 15q23
5 OCA2 15q12-q13.1

Location of genes on chromosome 16: 

Sr no  Gene  Location
1 GLG1 16q23.1
2 HN1L 16p13.3
3 NOB1 16q22.1
4 TELO2 16q13.3
5 ZNF200 16q13.3

Location of genes on chromosome 17: 

Sr no  Gene  Location
1 HN1 17q25.1
2 STH 17q21.31
3 RPAIN 17q13.2
4 SC65 17q21.2
5 BRCA1P1 none

Location of genes on chromosome 18: 

Sr no  Gene  Location
1 PIGN 18q21.33
2 DCC 18q21.2
3 CABYR 18q11.2
4 ELAC1 18q21.2
5 ESCO1 18q11.2

Location of genes on chromosome 19: 

Sr no  Gene  Location
1 OSCAR 19q13.42
2 TECR 19p13.12
3 TMED1 19p13.2
4 ATG4D 19p13.2
5 HRC 19q13.33

Location of genes on chromosome 20: 

Sr no  Gene  Location
1 PRNP 20p13
2 JAG1 20p12.2
3 ITPA 20p13
4 EDN3 20q13.32
5 ADA 20q13.12

Location of genes on chromosome 21: 

Sr no  Gene  Location
1 APP 21q21.3
2 S100B 21q22.3

Location of genes on chromosome 22: 

Sr no  Gene  Location
1 BCR 22q11.23
2 MAPK1 22q11.22
3 SOX10 22q13.1
4 MN1 22q12.1
5 COMT 22q11.21

Location of genes on chromosome X: 

Sr no  Gene  Location
1 TRO Xp11.21
2 GATA1 Xp11.23
3 APOO Xp22.11
4 BEX1 Xq22.1

Location of genes on chromosome Y: 

Sr no  Gene  Location
1 AZF1 Yq11
2 DAZ1 Yq11.22
3 DAZ2 Yq11.22
4 SRY Yp11.2
5 UTY Yq11.22

Conclusion: 

Genes are located on the arms of chromosomes, and telomeres protect them. The sequences in genes are highly conserved hence it is very important to maintain their integrity generation after generation to make a perfectly normal protein.